Thursday 9/22: Be sure to read your Water Analysis Lab!! If you wish, you may bring in a sample of water to be tested. This can be great for those of you on well water. This lab is a continuation of our mixture separation theme. If you don't have a sample - it's all good. I will have a sample for you to test.
We are up to page 20 in the note packet.
I came to this summary page at the beginning of class, to emphasize its use and to review the chemistry from Monday night's lecture. We covered a serious amount of chemistry - especially for first year students. Be sure to review that work.
I also wished to stress your role in making connections. I try to point out when one occurs - as the stories and applications build upon each other - but you can begin to look for these connections.
In light of this, I want to let you know how pleased I am to see the class working together. I know some of the practice problems went arwy. That's cool. It's about changing how we view the physical universe and you are growing!
For instance, we all know about density now - but its applications to our everyday life can begin to be connected to the theory. For instance, recall that I stressed that; If it floats a material is LESS dense than its surroundings and if it sinks, that material is denser than its surroundings.
Thus, the application issues of oil in a puddle of water, or icebergs, or how a pond freezes over in winter become (hopefully) more meaningful as we connect the theory of density to applications of that theory in our world.
For a specific example; we were discussing density of oil vs water and one student asked, why oil slicks can't just be burned off, since the oil is on top of the water.
Well - essentially we can get it to burn - but it is not necessarily easy to do. First there is the whole issue of a mass of burning oil floating around, but(!) pointedly, oil is very much attracted to the partial positive and negative charges found on water molecules. This is one of the reasons why oil spreads out along the surface of water. The strong attraction between water molecules doesn't let the oil dissolve into the water. But the oil is attracted to water and spreads out on top .
So, (and here is how we apply past learning....) it is difficult to get oil to vaporize to the gas phase while attracted to water. And we need to get to that gas phase in order to get proper combustion - thus it is often difficult to simply "burn off" the oil. Be aware of how we are trying to connect up the theory with answers to our questions.
And, while I remember - don't forget about ducks, oil glands and preening!
With that written here's the summary. I began with the use of Rf values as they apply to our chromatography lab. Your unknowns may not contain any of the standard dyes. Some dyes used to make those unknown mixtures may not have been tested as a standard dye. That's cool. Discuss such issues in your reflection.
We completed intensive vs extensive properties of matter. Essentially this completes our work regarding the dimensions of matter.
This last section is particularly important for the idea of constants (essentially, intensive properties). As a rule, given similar conditions of pressure and temperature we can compare samples of matter and also see why some of the behavior of matter changes as temperature and/or pressure changes occur.
The remainder of the evening was spent with applying density (and other intensive properties of water) to the mechanics of a pond freezing over. This is a solid application and you will see this idea again on a test.
The key here is to understand that (oddly) water is densest at a temperature of approximately 4 degrees Celsius yet freezes at 0 degress Celsius. This means that water is denser at a temperature above its freezing point (or temperature at which it solidifies!). This is a weird fact! Most materials are densest in the solid phase ...well not water!
Water as it approaches the point of solidification becomes less dense !
Recall that the upper most layer of water cools down to air temperature . (Energy flows from high to low ... recall our conversation on hyerthermia ... Do you recall me explaining that based upon our body temperature of approximately 97.4 C, we are the hottest thing around as a rule. )
Alright ... as the uppermost layer of water cools to an air temperature of 4 C or lower, the layer of water becomes densest and it sinks down. A new layer of water becomes the uppermost layer and that layer cools to air temperature (Energy flows from high to low) ...and it sinks as it becomes denser. This process continues until the entire water system is approximately 4 C.
The uppermost layer continues to cool to 0 C as winter approaches and the forming ice layer is LESS dense than the underlying water and thus that upper layer freezes. As water turns to ice the spacing between water molecules increases, thus making a mass of ice less dense than a similar mass of water. Viola! Ice floats and life beneath it, continues.
Okay - I think that's it! It is a short summary but the ideas are all here. Stay safe. Add information to your notes as you need to and I will catch you on Monday! Bring in a sample of water if you want, for lab. If you don't have a sample - I will provide one. No problem.
Monday 9/19: First, there is a short assignment. I would like you to read over page 14 of the notes (Extensive vs. Intensive properties) and try the questions on page 15.
Well, Monday's lecture evolved out of a question I proposed, while discussing intensive properties of matter.
I was giving examples of why some properties were intensive (a property independent of amount), and I got onto the topic of odor.
As an example I used odorless natural gas, polluted with stinky chemicals (mercaptans) to alert us of a leak.
Mercaptans are a group of chemicals, also found in smelly skunk odor and their odor is highly disliked by humans. Mercaptans are examples of a class of compound, called thiols . (The compound contains an S-H group which is to say, it contains a sulfur atom bonded to a hydrogen atom somewhere in the compound structure).
This led to a discussion of combustion. I again raised the question, "Is the sun combusting/burning?" and there seemed to be some lingering uncertainty among class members. One brave class member ventured the answer "No" ... but I felt that, as a rule class members seemed a bit unsure.
So we went back through the topic.
First we require two things in order for combustion (in the most classic sense) to occur.
Fuel - a substance which loses electrons ...The fuel is what is oxidized .... The fuel is that which actually "burns", as burning is an oxidation process. Gasoline, wood, paper, metal are examples of fuel. The fuel is most commonly in the gas phase.
The chemical reaction of combustion also requires:
Oxygen - the element. Pure Oxygen does not burn. Rather, it supports the combustion of the fuel by accepting the lost electrons. Oxygen is reduced (It gains electrons and lowers [reduces] in charge ...more later). We spoke extensively about oxygen. We discussed its role in combustion but also its limited solubility in water.
So combustion requires some sort of fuel and oxygen.
We re-established that the concentration of oxygen in outer space is relatively low. Hence the sun cannot be "burning".
If you recall we ran through this briefly by looking at the mass of hydrogen fused into helium, undergoing a mass defect with some mass converted to energy. (Don't worry we will come back to this - but this was at the heart of a prior conversation, so I am reiterating it here).
As an example of combustion I lit the natural gas supply at the front desk. This led to the question from a class member; "Why isn't all of the natural gas in the pipes burning?"
I took this opportunity to establish a number of ideas surrounding combustion. At the conclusion, I asked the class members to take some time and to speak with each other about the ideas coming at them. We put a number of shared ideas on the board.
I have edited the list a bit, but hopefully I have captured the essential ideas below. Perhaps you might want to copy a shortened version into your notes .... It's up to you.
This is what you should learn from the lecture:
1) For combustion to occur, we generally need the fuel in the gas phase. Generally, solids and liquids are converted to a vapor or gas phase during the combustion process.
2) Oxygen does not burn, rather it supports combustion. A pure sample of oxgyen gas will not ignite.
3) Wood tends to burn via a heating process called pyrolysis in which the cellulose (biomass) and other components of the wood mixture are converted into liquid and then gas.
4) The natural gas in the pipes leading to the classroom does not combust while a Bunsen burner is aflame, because the fuel in the pipes is in the liquified state due to higher pressure, (and we need the gaseous state for combustion), as well as the absence of oxygen in those pipes! The gas does not come in contact with oxygen until it gets "in the room".
This led to the conversation as to why you are to ALWAYS avoid squirting kerosene or lighter fluid into an already burning fire. JUST DO NOT DO IT! The lighter fluid stream can ignite (due to the surrounding gases) and lead back into the lighter fluid can that can have oxygen gas in it. This will cause a tremendous and possibly deadly explosion! There is oxygen in that can of lighter fluid .... This obviously is a very different situation compared to the natural gas feeds into the room!
5) The propane used in our gas grills is under high pressure in the gas canisters we buy at Home Depot or Lowes. That higher pressure liquifies the propane (You can hear it sloshing around) . However, the propane vaporizes (evolves into a gas phase) when we open the valve! (As a side note, the butane of a BIC lighter is under pressure and thus a liquid. It does not evolve into a gas, until we depress the release valve and lower the pressure on the butane)
6) To extinguish a grease fire, we can take a number of action steps which will either remove the fuel or remove the oxygen.
- Baking soda works great on a grease fire, as the poweder absorbs the grease, thus preventing the grease from vaporizing!
- A large quantity of salt poured onto a grease fire essentially smothers (limits the ability of oxygen to combine with the vaporizing grease) the fire.
- A lid on a pan, smothers a fire, as it limits the availability of oxygen to get to the vaporizing grease.
NEVER POUR WATER ONTO A GREASE FIRE. WATER AND OIL DO NOT MIX, AND YOU WILL SPREAD THE FIRE BY SPREADING THE VAPORIZING GREASE OR OIL!!!!!!!
Water CAN be used to extinguish a wood fire. Water can interfer with the pyrolytic process of developing gases as well as interfer with the ability of oxygen to combine with those combustible gases.
7) When we say that fish breathe oxygen from water, we DO NOT mean the oxygen atom which makes up the water molecule. Rather, a small amount of oxygen gas from photosynthetic aquatic plants, or from the atmosphere, dissolves in volume of water. Essentially there are molecule of O2 existing among/between water molecules. It is this dissolved oxygen gas, which fish breath!
8) Oxygen gas (O2) dissolves poorly (limitedly) in water. This is one reason why we need an air pump for an aquarium. As a rule, the agitation due to wave action helps to dissolve atmopheric oxygen gas into the ocean's water. Thus, since wave action is lacking in an aquarium, we need to force oxgyen gas into the water via an air pump.
And, of course, per our conversation, this is why your poor goldfish spent a fair amount of time at the top of the bowl, as this area had the greatest concentration of dissolved oxygen --- especially if you didn't change the water all that often . Yeah, you know who you are....
(As a sidenote, not discussed in class, but this limited solubility of oxygen gas in water, is connected to why overwatering most plants is a disaster. You see, most plants get the oxygen they need for cellular respiration through their roots. If water is saturating the soil surrounding the roots, then oxygen gas is poorly absorbed by the plant and the plant struggles to make ATP!!!!!)
So, notice the themes. Notice the requirement for a combustible fuel, in its gas phase as well as oxygen for combustion to occur. Notice how the above ideas often surround evolving a gas, or prevting a gas from developing.
Notice that we have a chemical reaction in combustion and that reaction involves a chemical losing electrons and another chemical gaining those lost electrons. (Conservation of Charge)
Are you learning anything? Is the lecture moving you forward? How does this summary work for you? Does this summarize the chemistry you should be mastering, well enough? Start committing some of these ideas to memory. Start intertwining some of this work with the way we think. I was so pleased to see class members writing down ideas as the lecture progressed. Remember, we tend to commit ideas to memory better, when we write them down.
Write with questions.
Thursday 9/15: I tossed up the short poem by Jarod K Anderson:
The water in your body is just visiting. It was a thunderstorm a wek ago. It will be the ocean soon enough. Most of your cells come and go like morning dew. We are more weather pattern than stone monument. Sunlight on mist. Summer lightning. Your choices outweigh your substance.
(This is a person who grasps the Law of the Conservation of Matter!!!)
Wll, we are up through page 13 of the notes. We have wrapped up our basic work re: the dimensions of matter, such as; mass, volume, density, weight, pressure, and phases (solid, liquid and gas). We are beginning to pick up a little speed.
This lecture was based on two ideas:
1) How we might be able to envision the three primary phases of matter found here on Earth. (FYI: While I mentioned the difference between the terms phase of matter and states of matter, I am using them pretty interchangeably for our work)
solid = a military parade : There is very little space between the chemical species [atoms, molecules etc]. This tends to be the densest phase or state of matter. Chemical species have highly limited motion. They tend to vibrate in position.
liquid = a dorm party: There is more space between species. The species can roll over or maneuver past other particles. Yet, as I said, anyone who has done a bellyflop into a pool knows that liquids are no "pushovers".
gas = a soccer game with 6 year olds: All heck breaks loose! There is the greatest distance between species coupled to the greatest random arrangement and movement. The gas phase of a substance is often considered to be the least dense state of the substance. Volumes of gases can be compressed or expanded. The volume of a gas is very dependent upon temperature and pressure.
2) Pressure and a few of its applications.
This second thrust of the lecture was designed to cover the basic issues surrounding pressure, seen in such ideas as air pressure and pressure exerted by water.
It is difficult for first year science students to understand that we do indeed live at the bottom of an ocean of air. This ocean of air exerts a pressure on our bodies - yet we have evolved to deal with this tremendous pressure and the slight changes in that air pressure.
The idea of pressure plays a large roll in grasping the behavior of matter, as gas behavior changes with changes in pressure (and temperature).
To help illustrate the effects of air pressure I played a video from Texas A & M University. The link is in your notes and found on the video section of this website.
Recall that the sheet of newsprint was approximately 500 in^2 (500 square inches). Air pressure is approximately 14.7 lbs/in^2. The pressure of the air mass pressing down on the newsprint is enourmous!
Just because we don't "feel" the effects of pressure all the time, does not mean pressure doesn't exist. or experience the effects of pressure. And, as I have written, as students of chemistry we need to be aware of pressure, as it affects the behavior of gases.
Pressure is often measured in units called atmospheres (atm). 1 atmosphere is effectively a modern equivalent of the older measure (and unit) of 14.7 lbs/in ^2.
There is also the most current measure in the unit of kilopascals (kPa). I don't use this unit too often in our work. I just mention it here in case you see it in your reading/research. 101.3 kPa = 1 atm
Anyway, with all of that out of the way, I spoke briefly about scuba gear (Thank you Jacques Yves Cousteau and Emile Gagnan ...Don't forget to ask your grandparents about the Undersea World of Jacques Cousteau!!).
I also commented upon my own wonder at how life exists thousands of meters below the surface of the ocean, as (approximately) a depth of every 10 meters of water equates to an extra 1 atm of pressure!!!
We then tried to look at a small application of Boyle's Law ... mammalian breathing and ear popping!
Just to review: For this application of "Everyday Chemistry", I wrote Boyle's Law as
(P external)(V external) = (P internal)(V internal)
Essentially we breathe by maintaining a cycle of pressure and volume changes withing our thoracic cavity (chest cavity) relative to the external pressure and volume (the air outside our body)
The pressure and volume in our thoracic cavity change due to the action of the brain's medulla oblongata on our diaphram and the movement of our rib cage.
Essentially, when the diaphram drops and the rib cage rises, the chest cavity volume increases and the pressure of gases in that cavity drops below the air pressure outside the body!
Thus, momentarily air pressure is greater outside the body, and in the attempt to equilibrate pressure between two systems, air is pushed into our body (inhalation).
As this occurs, the rib cage drops and the diaphram rises, decreasing chest cavity volume and increasing internal chest cavity pressure to just above 1 atm.
This causes air to be pushed out of our body (exhalation).
Study the diagram on page 13 carefully.
We then touched upon ear popping. I think I surprised some of you when I mentioned that the throat and the ear are connected via the eustachian tube. The tube's role is to allow drainage from the middle ear to the throat and to aid in the equilibration of pressure!
See you next week. Read your chromatography lab. Write with questions.
Monday 9/12: Before I get too far into this, recall you have a small assignment , due next class:
Assignment: Get to the online letcure notes, found on this site, under the Everyday notes tab, and complete pages 9 and 10. This will allow me to attack the information a bit faster on Thursday.
I think it would be fair to write that the bulk of lecture was taken up with the issues evolving from question #2 at the bottom of page 7.
Given the balanced equation representing a reaction for the formation of water: 2 H2 + O2 → 2 H2O
What is the total mass of water formed when 8 grams of hydrogen (H2) react completely with 64 grams of oxygen (O2)?
The question is an application of the Law of the Conservation of Matter.
In short, I want you to know 2 things really well. Using the Law of the Conservation of Matter, we may deduce that:
1) when you completely react 20 grams of reactants (for example), then you must produce 20 grams of products, in some form, using the atoms/ion s of those reactants. Were you to react 1 ton of reactants, than you would produce 1 ton of product ... and so forth...
Also, I want you to know that:
2) as the reactants decrease in concentration, the products must be increasing in concentration. The chemical species of the reactants are used (up) to make the new products. The atoms of the reactants are essentially "recycled" to make the products. (This is a review of a concept brought out last week in lecture)
Now, question #2 threw some very good thinkers for a bit of a loop due to the inclusion of the balanced chemical reaction equation. They wanted to use the coefficients somehow.
However, for this conversation that reaction equation is unhelpful ...it is a bit of a red herring (a false trail). You do NOT need to use it.
The question is straight up: If you completely react 72 grams of reactant (8+64), then you must produce 72 grams of product. Recall ...per number 1) above, this is something I really want you to know.
The larger numbers of the balanced chemical equation are called coefficients (Co-eh-fish-ents ...
sort of :-)
Coefficients provide the ratio between the substances of a chemical reaction. Or as one classmate stated, if you don't like that definition, we may, for our purposes, envision a coefficient as representing the number of molecules or atoms of a substance in a chemical equation. It is a limited use of the term - but we are not doing mole theory - so it is a reasonable approach to use.
The coefficient does not necessarily represent a mass. The unit for mass in this class, is grams, kilograms or miligrams.
Thus, we do not need to use the coefficients since we have been given the mass directly in the problem. Additionally we are told in the problem that the mass of chemicals reacted completely with each other. So nothing of the reactants is left over. All of the reactant mass was converted to product.
Given this reading, the question is a direct applicaton of the Law of the Conservation of Matter ... What (mass, number or type of atoms,) you put in, you must get out.
We also spent a bit of time gently introducting the means to look at the terms molecules (a collection of atoms) as well as the term atoms. This is by no means perfect, but for now it can support our conversations. We will grow these terms shortly.
We wrapped up the lecture part of the evening with a disscussion of mass, weight, volume and density.
Recall that weight is really the dimension we give to a mass in a gravitational field.
Essentially, we only NEED to use the term weight, when we are discussing a mass in different gravitational fields.
Here on Earth, our gravitationsl field is pretty consistent from place to place. Some execeptions, where the gravitational field does change (slightly) is at the equator, atop the highest mountains, or in Death Valley (well below sealevel).
Do you remember my example of our 120 lbs astronaut on Earth? When she travels to the the moon, she doesn't lose an arm, or leg ....She does NOT lose any mass. Yet, on the moon she weighs only 20 lbs.
The moon has one sixth of the gravitational field of the Earth. (Thus, 1/6 of 120 is 20!!!!).
This portion of the lecture, led to my TED talk on Superman😁
We also discussed briefly the effects on human physiology in low gravity. Thus, if we do not adjust in some way, the evironment to compensate for low gravity (such as daily exercise), there may be problems returning back to Earth in time. The atrophy of human muscle does occur in lower gravity.
We took notes on volume. We discussed that we may treat units just like numbers. Thus given a cube of 2 centimeters along each side:
2 cm x 2 cm x 2 cm = 8 cm^3
2 x 2 x 2 = 8 and cm x cm x cm equals cm^3
The unit cc is from the words cubic centimeter (cm^3). 1 mL of water is equal to 1 cm^3 or 1 cc.
We saw this application again, with density. Treat units just like numbers.
D = M/V or for instance D= 10 grams/2 mL Thus 10/2 = 5. grams and mL are indivisible, so we get the derived unit g/mL for a density of 5 g/mL.
We can treat units just like we treat the actual numbers!!!
We went on to discuss Archimedes, a gold crown, a lousy cousin, war, density, and bathing.
Okay, write with questions. How is this going? Are you folks with me and moving forward?
Remember, I can't leave to take you to the airport, without you in the car ....It just makes no sense.
Thusday 9/8: As I said the other night - I am not quite sure how well this summary will work - but I am willing to give it a try!
The theme of the lecture surrounded the Law of the Conservation of Matter, Energy and Charge. Keep that it mind and it may make sense.
I fell off topic due to two different questions. The first centered on as to why California would shut down a nuclear power plant, as it was zero emisisons, followed later by a question concerning what I menat by "ordinary chemical means".
Well nuclear power plants are not zero-emmision facillities. Granted they do not produce carbon dioxide and other climate-changing compounds - but they do produce radioactive wastes which must be dealt with. Unfortunately, here in the US, disposing of such wastes has become complicated and most nuclear wastes are stored on site. This led to a comment about burying the wastes deep underground in a salt mine .
The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is the nation's only deep geologic long-lived radioactive waste repository. It is located near Carlsbad, New Mexico, (I think I said Nevada ... I am an idiot). WIPP permanently isolates nuclear waste 2,150 feet underground in a very stable, very old salt formation.
Transporting such wastes across state lines has become problematic, here in the US. This lead to the idea of jettisoning the waste into space - but the Columbia explosion stopped that idea very quickly.
This allowed me to bring us back to the Law of the Conservation of Matter in that we discussed two of the chemical reactions being employed, one being the reaction of the solid fuel booster rockets.
Fe2O3(s) + 2 Al (s) --> 2 Fe(s) + Al2O3(s) + Energy
iron oxide: rust + aluminum --> iron + alumunum oxide + a release of energy into the environment
I showed how this balanced equation could be interpreted. We used terms such as reactants (left of the reaction arrow) and products (right of the reaction arrow). I briefly discussed how the energy was released into the atmosphere and used to propel the rocket off the the ground (to boost it out of the immediate gravity well of the Earth).
The focus here was to show however that if we put in a ton of reactant, we must, in turn get a ton of product out! This essentially is employing the Law of the Conservation of Matter.
Well, then, everything sort of went to heck after that - because through some sort of conversation between class and myself, I think some big mouth (me) mentioned that the Sun, was not "burning".
Here I employed Einstein's comment " Science is nothing more than the refinement of everyday thinking."
In short I brought the crew through the thought process of "burning".
Class members readily told me that we needed fuel and oxygen for burning. Class members readily supported the idea that space did not have a great deal of oxygen.... Hence ... The sun could not be "burning".
Of course, that raised the issue of "Then, what was the Sun doing?". This lead us into a brief look at nuclear chemistry... not ordinary chemical reactions. The question then what we mean by "ordinary" is answered by refering to the chemistry of electrons. In "ordinary chemical reactions", electrons are shared, lost and gained, creating new bonds, or new chemical unions between chemical species.
In a nuclear reaction, the nuclei of atoms get involved . Protons and Neutrons of the nucleus are the main players - not electrons outside of the nucleus.
We discussed the nuclear reaction going on in the Sun noting that as new nuclei are made (as in the merging/union of two Hydorgen species into a single Helium species), some mass is converted into energy. And that is the energy to which we refer when we speak of the Sun's energy.
Then we got onto looking into the past when we star at starlight and how to make sense of that statement. (Recall that it takes approximately 8 minutes for light from the Sun to travel the 93 million miles to Earth ...Therefor it takes a measurable amont of time for even light to cross space). Hence when we look at starlight, that light may have left the particular star (billions of miles away from us), millions of years ago ...and is just now reaching Earth. Hence we are looking into the past whe we see such starlight.
Okay, back on track (wrenched back onto track is more like it)....I had the chance to introduce you to the Grandfather of Chemistry (and heck, the Grandmother as well), those crazy zany kids, Marie-Anne and Antoine Laurent Lavoisier.
We finished up page 7 and we need to hit mass volume and density on Monday.
So, how was that? Did I capture most of that conversation? I hope you learned something and please bring in your questions.
Assignment for 9/8/2022: Five Questions
Class began with fielding questions regarding the introductroy packet. If the answers were unclear - or if you have more questions, please contact me.
We moved on into the first note packet and we are now on page 6. While we didn't cover a lot of page - I was really happy with the conversation and questions. In this lecture I tried to focus your attention upon the identification of matter vs. energy.
Before we worked on matter vs. energy I made a pitch that over the course of the semester we will be trying to apply that difference between information and knowledge. I want us to work at weaving information together so that we come up with predictions or explanations (Knowledge).
Recall Mortimer Adler's "The telephone is full of facts, but it doesn't contain a single idea".
We don't need to become telephone books, but thinkers.
1) We looked at the idea that much of chemistry deals with the electrons of chemical speices! Keep this in mind. Much of our work concerns electrons.
2) We ran through the definition of matter (and for our course, if something is not matter, it is energy). The definition is good - but I believe it only gets a body so far. So, we focused upon using the model of a balloon. Whatever fills a balloon may in all likelihood be considered to be matter.
There are a few caveats. But essentially, if you can fill a balloon and measure that change in mass and volume - and hold it in that balloon for a reasonable amount of time - then whatever filled the balloon is matter.
If "something" does not fill a balloon then that "something" is probably energy.
To extend this thought, consider light and the process of photosynthesis in plantlife. Energy is the ability to create a change or to do work.
So if you think about light and the process of photosynthesis in which that light drives a reaction which turns (changes or works to change) CO2 into C6H12O6, then light is a form of energy. (It created a change ... and we can't fill a balloon with pure light ...It is not matter) .
3) We then begain our work on the Law of the Conservation of Matter , Energy and Charge. This is our first BIG IDEA of the course. Matter cannot simply appear nor disappear. More on this idea is coming your way, on Thursday 8 September, in our next class.
Enjoy the Labor Day Holiday folks. Write with questions.
Monday 8/29: Our first evening class and our first laboratory are completed! In short we ran through the introductory packet. See the first page, Everyday Notes, for a digital copy of the introductory packet.
I stressed the value of attendance, and the importance of meeting deadlines.
I stressed the need for citations. (If you look it up, it needs to be cited). Students should never worry about have a good number of citations - I think it is perfectly reasonable as most of the information is new and should thus be cited.
We took a fast look at the final paper, and the presentations.
Assignment: In addition to the highlights from class, students are required to read over the packet fully and to bring in any questions that can be fielded on Thursday.
We watched the Human Element and completed the first few notes up to page 4 with the definition of the Latin term scientia.
Given it was a Monday, we headed off to Room 336 for the Alchemy Lab. The write up for this lab is due next Thursday (8 September), as there is no class on Monday , 5 September (Labor Day Holiday).
Okay that's a wrap. Keep in touch. Write if you wish. I will do my best to get back to you in a timely fashion.